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Walnut (Dari Persian: chaharmaghz, scientific name: juglansregia), its fruit is round with two shells, one soft and green, which gradually becomes dry and disappears; the other is hard and wooden. Its kernel is edible and full of oil. Walnut is a valuable nut that has different types. It is the best source of protein, fiber, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals. The word nutmeg morabguch in Middle East is the same meaning as walnut. Flax seed and walnut contain the most omega 3 and fatty acid among other botanical nutrients.

Walnut benefits

1. Reducing blood cholesterol
2. Reducing bad cholesterol (LDL)
3. Increasing good cholesterol (HDL)
4. Increasing elasticity of arteries
5. Protecting against heart diseases
6. Increasing power of mind and intelligence
7. Useful for asthma
8. Preventing from arthritis
9. Useful for skin diseases such as: eczema and psoriasis (appearing red spots on skin)
10. Anti-cancer
11. Containing antioxidant. Walnut and chestnut have the most antioxidant among the other nuts.

12. Protecting of immunity system
13. Preventing from blood clot
14. Regulating body metabolism
15. Regulating blood pressure
16. Regulating blood sugar
17. Preventing from Parkinson and Alzheimer
18. Preventing from gallstone
19. Protecting of bones
20. Walnut oil cures joint pains and simplifies the nutrient absorbing
21. The children who do not have much omega 3 in their dietary will have some disorder problems such as: hyperactivity, behavioral problems, irritability and sleep problem.
22. The women who eat 28 gr nuts and peanuts per week, they decrease developing of gallstone up to 25%.
23. Useful for having a calm sleep. Consume vegetable salad with walnut for your dinner.

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Vitamins and minerals of walnut

Walnut is the best source of manganese and copper.
Walnut contains: magnesium, phosphorus, some zinc, iron, calcium and selenium. It also contains the most amounts of vitamins like: B6, B1 and B5 (pantothenic acid) and other vitamins like: E, B3 and B2.

Botanical characteristics

Walnut with the scientific name Juglans is from Juglandaceae group. Its scientific name is from the latin word Jovis-Glans, means Jupiter hazelnut. Different types of this tree are planted in China, Japan, France and America. Iranian walnut is the most important one in the world because at first, walnut was sent from Iran to the Middle East and from there to Greece and Rome then to England and America. Persian walnut is the only spices that its kernel is economical in terms of food consumption. Usual walnut tree is a single-base one with the height of 10-25 meters. Walnut tree has pinnate compound leaves. It is a single-base tree that its female and male flowers appear on separate branches of a tree. The female gamete of walnut is heterogamous, the pollination is done by wind and insects have no role in it.

Walnut types

The walnuts that are planted in the walnut-rich areas of Iran are the spices of usual walnut or juglans. These walnuts have various local names in different parts of Iran, despite the apparent differences; some of them are the same kind but with different names. In general, the most important walnuts which are cultivated in Iran are: paper walnut, stone walnut, Maku walnut, needle walnut and ………

Chemical compounds

Walnut contains a little organic acid, essence, lime oxalate and vitamins like A, B, C, D and E., it also has a little arsenic acid (2/98 microgram per 100 gr walnut). The leaf of walnut tree contains 3% enozit, elajicacid, Gallic acid and an essence with particular odor, some paraffin, tannin, fat substances and minerals like: calcium, potassium, magnesium, barium and carotene. The green flesh shell of walnut contains: sugar emulsion and organic acids such as: citric acid, metallic acid, phosphates and calcium oxalate, the extract of walnut leaf is germicide and bactericide.

Water 3/5 g
Protein 14/8 g
Fatty substances 65 g
Amyloid substances 13 g
Calcium 100 mg
Phosphorus 380 mg
Iron 3 mg
Sodium 2 mg
Potassium 50 mg
Vitamin A 30 Unit
Vitamin B1 0/35 mg
Vitamin B2 0/12 mg
Vitamin B3 1 mg
Vitamin C 2 mg

Walnut tree

Walnut tree is very tall and its hard wood is the best and the most famous wood. The height of walnut tree is 10-40 meters.