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Saffron

Saffron with the scientific name (crocus sativus) is the family of Iridaceae. Historically, the main origin of saffron was the ancient state of Iranian Media.
Iranian not only exported saffron to many parts of the world, but also introduced its properties to Greeks, Romans, Chinese and Arabians and also learned them farming way of saffron. Historical evidences show that Iranian has had great interest and attention to saffron since ancient times, as they extensively used it at the celebrations, ceremonies and feasts. At present, Iran is the biggest producer of saffron in addition; Iranian saffron has the highest quality due to special climate of Iran.

The history of saffron cultivation in Iran refers to one thousand years ago. This colorful and precious plant has no stalk but has bulb. Since it is grown in desert soil, it is famous to red gold or desert gold. One gram saffron is obtained from 150 flowers and one kilo dry saffron from 147000 flowers.
Because of its great taste, color and aroma, it has a lot of usages in producing food, pharmaceutical and chemical products. Because of limited cultivation and production, it is an expensive product. Iran is the leading producer of saffron in the world with the average of 100 tons per year.

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Botany

Saffron is a grassy, perennial and bulbiferous plant without stalk. Saffron bulb is brown and like solid sphere with the diameter of 3-5 cm, it locates inside the soil.
Each bulb produces 6-9 leaves like the leaves of grass. Saffron roots grow from the base of bulb and its peripheral circle. Saffron flower is the first limb which appears in early autumn.
The cover of flower composed of three sepals and three petals. They are purple so, it is hard to distinguish sepals from petals. The quantity of stamens is three and the length of filament is twice of anther. The anther is yellow.
Pistil locates in the center of flower and has one ovary and a thin style that appears from ovary. Style is long and light yellow which attaches to a transparent three- branch red- orange stigma with the length of 2-3 cm. the three stigmas with style constitute the trading saffron after drying.



Types of Saffron

Negin Saffron

Negin is similar to normal Poushali saffron in terms of style , but it is thicker than normal Poushali.
Negin Saffron is rich in color and fragrance . it is extraordinary in terms of size and beauty.


Sargol Saffron
Another type of this saffron is Sargol or nib saffron that is obtained from bunch saffron. In this way, the yellow parts are separated with scissors or static electricity and obtained clean and quit red saffron that is called All-red in English and is similar to coupe (cut) saffron.


Bunch Saffron

This type of saffron consists of stigma and style (red part and white or yellow part) which is called cluster saffron in Persian and bunch or red & white in abroad. In fact, the red part should be between 70%-75% and root part between 35%- 30%.



Poushali Saffron

Poushali Consists of threads with 2-3 mm style. The presence of style (the white part of saffron) gives it a great fragrance.

 
Konj or White Saffron

Konj is the root or white part of saffron which remains after separating Sargol saffron from Bunch saffron.